Increasing Muscle Mass
Protein plus carb supplement during intense training increases muscle mass.
Supplementing proteins and carbohydrates immediately after intense cycling increased muscle cross sectional area. (measured by muscle biopsy). But no effect on performance during a 30-kilometer cycling time trial.
A sophisticated study by colleagues from James Madison University in Virginia showed the above. Examining the effects of supplemental protein plus carbohydrates versus carbohydrates. Studying during normal, intense and reduced intensity cycle training. Effects on skeletal muscle and performance in cycling time trial.
They used only seven subjects and the training blocks lasted only 10 days. They found measurable changes in muscle structure during a short training cycle. Supplementing protein during intense training might enhance performance during longer cycles.